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How do we rate — galactically?


by Jerome Weeks 12 Dec 2007

In 1984, Russian astronomer Nikolai Kardashev proposed a scale for judging the technological advancement of a civilization — like, perhaps, an extraterrestrial one we might encounter. As First Science suggests, it’s a mighty broad, big-picture scale. But it has some fascinating implications for where we are now.

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In 1984, Russian astronomer Nikolai Kardashev proposed a scale for judging the technological advancement of a civilization — like, perhaps, an extraterrestrial one we might encounter. As First Science suggests, it’s a mighty broad, big-picture scale. But it has some fascinating implications for where we are now.

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